protection relay testing procedure

The phase B and C CT also would need to be tested in a similar manner; but the trip lead from the relay may be lifted, since this part of the circuit already was tested. I know plenty of test managers who are in the same boat as I am. Usually I try to keep my posts as simple and practical as possible. If the test-set broke down, I could find anything that produced DC current with a meter that could measure DC voltage, and I was back in business. find out which conditions should make the relay operate, and then, create some realistic scenarios that are just within the relay’s operating tolerances, and then, create some realistic scenarios that are just outside the relay’s operating tolerance, and then. Relay settings problems are THE most common failure points with digital relays. PDF | MV SWITCHGEAR PROTECTION RELAYS INSPECTION AND TEST PROCEDURE | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate . The paper presents out-of-step (OOS) protection device testing methodology under close-to-real power system operation conditions. The owner must keep … Plant protection system functional testing. For example, on a three-phase overcurrent relay, it would be necessary to inject a current at the phase A CT and verify that the relay and associated breaker trip. The protection circuits include all low-voltage devices and wiring connected to: instrument transformer secondaries, telecommunication systems, auxiliary relays and devices, lockout relays, and trip coils of circuit breakers. It looks like you’re winning because you keep getting passes, but your luck will run out, eventually, and you’ll be stuck trying to figure out how to get out of the hole you’ve dug for yourself. Further information on testing and maintenance procedures can be found in the Relay Testing and Maintenance Guide. MiCOM P643 - Transformer Differential. • Applicability: Owners of generation, transmission, and transmission Protection Systems. The method is based on theory for sequence components applied to three-phase power transformers. Chapter 1 Getting started Establishing connection with the relay Downloading the Settings from the relay . Pickup is defined as that value of current or voltage which will just close the relay contacts from the 0.5 time-dial position. RELAY SETTINGS At all new protective relay installations, the re­ lays should be adjusted in accordance with the settings given in the relay data sheets furnished by the Denver Office, after which, tests should be made to determine if the actual operating characteristics check with the adjustments made. Digital outputs can be tested in a few seconds during periodic maintenance intervals. He managed to get all the timing tests to pass, but the student who checked the relay after him found that the pickup was nowhere near the calibration tolerances. Numeric keypad = Numpad.svg By Mysid (Self-made in Inkscape) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons, Telephone keypad = https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Telephone-keypad.png. High standards of safety are observed when working in live substations. Out-of-Step Relays Testing Procedure. Use the actual, in-use output contacts instead of spare-output simulations. If you’re new to relay testing or simply new to Protection Suite, your steps for setting up new tests are organized and understandable. However, properly com-missioning an entire protection system, not just the individual relays, presents a challenge. (This would be similar to connecting your test-set voltage and current channels to the back of the relay the way the relay manufacturer shows the connections instead of looking at the drawing and trying to replace the CTs and PTs with test-set channels, using the site’s three-line drawings. If the right amount of money comes out when I pretend to be a customer with the ATM test (or the correct responses occur when I simulate a fault on either side of a relay pickup), I don’t need to learn the machine language responsible to prove that function is correct. MiCOM P841 - Auto Re-Closer Relay. (This would be the same as mapping spare inputs for your relay testing.). Allowing for meter differences, interpretation of readings, etc., this value should be within ±5% of previous data. You can find the first four problems by knowing what the relay is supposed to do (from a description of operation from the design engineer, or experience) and then applying realistic fault scenarios to prove the relay operates as it was intended. Generator Protection Alstom Micom p343 Testing Procedure 1. Relay setting engineers make a typo, or copy and paste error, when creating the settings. This paper suggests a process for performing consistent and thorough commissioning tests through many sources: breaking out relay logic into schematic drawings; using SER, metering, Creating new test plans for testing Instantaneous Overcurrent, Time-Overcurrent, Over and Under Voltage, Over and Under Frequency, and Step Distance functions is as simple as plugging your relay settings into the test plan builder and pressing ‘next’. For example, does your CT secondary loop test prove that the current flows into the correct terminal? You may consider to: Check the spelling; Use less keywords; Use different keywords; Submit Buying Request,click the button right; Haven't found right suppliers; Our buyer assistants can help you find the most suitable, 100% reliable suppliers from China. Chris is an Electrical Engineering Technologist, a Journeyman Power System Electrician, and a Professional Engineer. Siemens 7SA522 - Line Distance Protection. The acceptance, commissioning, maintenance, and troubleshooting tests in electro-mechanical relays were all identical because the failure points in the relay didn’t change. wide variety of test plans and practices. If you set and measure a pickup and timing test today, it will be the same forever as long as the first five components remain functional. ), Disconnect the hopper that dispenses the bills and replace it with the test-set digital input feedback inputs. These tests should be followed to determine if the relay is operating correctly. I didn’t start my career as a relay tester. It will help you. We had to: If you understand the test and perform it manually until it becomes boring, those fundamentals will stick with you forever. The relay can be of static type(DTH31- Alsthom) or numerical type( 7 UT- Sag ) The relays have to be tested as per the procedure mentioned in manuals.The procedure mention below enables the testing engineer to confirm the correctness wiring. You can get passes on your test sheets AND find out if the CTs and PTs are connected to the relay correctly by connecting your test-set to the relay, using the site drawings. The functions either work, or they don’t. There is no reason to find the exact pickup points in a digital relay because there would be nothing to tweak to bring it into tolerance. The procedure I just described is called dynamic, or system, testing in the relay testing world. The first electrical test made on the relay should be a pickup test. Electromechanical Relays 83 2. For Testing and maintenance of protective relays always begins with a thorough visual and mechanical inspection. There could be something mechanically wrong with the hopper that prevents it from operating correctly. Download the program from the machine, analyze the program, and create simple commands that will simulate the keypad presses required to get hopper #1 to operate. Downloading the program (relay settings), figuring out the ATM programming style (relay element names and references), and reviewing the ATM logic (relay logic) is something that an experienced tester or engineer can do after years of experience, but is it necessary to test the ATM (relay)? Test each part of the entire system at least one time. The real failure points of digital relays are: The first five failure points can be tested with simple test procedures and don’t need fancy test-sets. Relay testers convert incompatible setting files in the field. Relay setting engineers base their calculations on incorrect information. Every testing company in the world is actively looking for (and poaching) skilled electrical testers. You can find the #5 problems on the list by reviewing all the site documentation and connections to make sure everything matches. How to Test Breaker Failure Element Logic, How to Perform an In-Service Protective Relay Meter Test. PROCEDURE FOR TESTING P643 TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL RELAY . For example, what happens to the numbering of the hoppers if we looked at the back of the ATM machine? Test procedure to speed up the current approach of testing protection systems in automation control solutions for generators in diesel and gas power plants. … Relays are frequently found device in high voltage or medium voltage power system. Technical Report PDF Available. The types of tests and inspections required for protection relays can depend on the owner of the equipment, however the following are recommended: Physical inspection of the relay hardware, wiring and terminal connections, Compare the protection settings with those specified in the latest protection study report, Create realistic fault simulations on either side of the element pickup to prove the relay will ignore faults on the wrong side of pickup, and trip for faults on the operate side of pickup. run the tests to make sure the relay operates when the test is within the tolerance and doesn’t operate when the test is outside the tolerance. The machine will dutifully spit out $20 to people who ask for $5 and $5 to people who ask for $20, even after the complicated test procedure gives you all passes. 1) is the line section whose protection relays are to be tested using the automated procedure. The question you should ask before you perform a maintenance test is: Do I trust the person who commissioned this relay? Repeat the process for some basic combinations and head home after a couple of minutes. This isn’t bragging. Let’s simplify this by replacing the relay with a bank machine, or ATM, that distributes three kinds of bills ($5, $10, $20) stored in three separate hoppers. I encourage you to use manual test methods for all your testing until the procedures actually sink in (you’ve done it so often that you could do it in your sleep), and then start playing with automation. Electro-mechanical relays had multiple failure points that could affect the relay pickup and timing characteristics. I was writing the next impedance relay testing post when I realized that a large part of it was going to be about the “right” way to test relays. SEL451 - Capacitor Bank Protection. Although testing of individual components may take place on a regular basis (e.g., relay calibration and lockout relay testing), it is essential to test the entire protection circuit, including wiring, and all connections from “beginning to end” to ensure integrity of the total circuit. I think I got lucky again with that first testing company. Which one is the right style for the ATM? Some of these setting errors can include: If you base your test plan on the settings inside the relay, then build a test plan based on those settings that changes values to make the relay test simpler; you will not be able to find any of these issues unless they are incredibly obvious. I started in a full-service, high-voltage testing company. All Posts, Protection Relay Testing. Protection Engineer . If I have a relay that is supposed to protect something, I will: When I use this testing philosophy, I can walk away from the relay fairly confident that the relay will operate correctly when in service. No. One of the most common complaints I get from students is something like, “We don’t test relays every day, so it’s hard…” I find this one difficult to understand because you could put me in any high-voltage electrical testing environment today and I could get the job done; even though I haven’t tested anything other than relays in nearly a decade. 20% off code for Pro Plan: EEP2020. • Requirements: The owner shall have a documented maintenance program, with procedures, and with test intervals supported by some basis. My first job was running the ductor leads for a switchgear contact resistance test. SEL311L - Distance & Line Differential. 2/62 Timing Relay. Solid-State Relays 87 3. If you ask for five dollars, you should get five dollars. If you can’t test an element without another element turning on, contact the design engineer to determine the scenarios that should operate without overlap. Each of the 400 kV transmission paths is split into two line sections and one of these (labeled Line 1 in Fig. Chapter 3: A Brief History of Protective Relays 83 1. Global Power Test uses the state-of-art protective relay tester, The Doble F6150e, for all of it`s relay testing schemes. The Protective Relay Maintenance Distribution course is an intensive, hands-on, lab oriented presentation. Skip this one if you are looking for relay testing steps for a specific element, or skip ahead to the “How Should You Test Protective Relays Treatise” section if you don’t want the background. 2 Prepared By Eng : Mohamad Tauseef Table of contents . I wrote a rant in The Relay Testing Handbook: Principles and Practice against automation in all forms, but I’ve changed my thinking quite a bit since then. Transformer above 2 MVA are normally provided with differential protection scheme. Have you ever noticed that the keys on a telephone keypad are opposite those on a computer keypad? Digital relays can have different test procedures for the different stages of a digital relay’s lifespan. Protection Testing Procedures: RED670 - Disatance & Line Differential. I don’t think I’m special. Protection relay self-test procedure. They were too cheap to buy the latest and greatest equipment, but forward thinking enough not to rely on carbon piles, lantern batteries, and multi-meters. Setting Values in the relay Sending the setting values to the relay . Many relay test plans start by re-configuring a digital relay to make it operate like an electro-mechanical relay, and then apply electro-mechanical relay test procedures to record a pickup and timing results. You could start a rabbit-hole of research to determine whether the numbers #1-2-3 start from left to right from the front or rear view, and build a test plan to test that; but you would only prove the machine does what is programmed to do. Relay Testing Methods 101 4. A confident electrical tester who knows their stuff can almost write their own ticket in this industry. For example, one of my students found the relay timing out of calibration. In fact, the first four failure points could be, and should be, continually tested while the relay is in-service and online. You can reverse engineer all of the settings to create a test plan, but you’ll only prove that the machine will do exactly what it is programmed to do, not that it is appropriate for the application. Chapter 2 . You can find out more about Chris here. The content is copyrighted to EEP and may not be reproduced on other websites. Why not just skip the in-between part and perform a fully functional test from the beginning? He is also the Author of The Relay Testing Handbook series and founder of Valence Electrical Training Services. This post is a little different because I will discuss how I approach all relay testing. If the relay trips then playback the case again with harmonic restraint enabled. The algorithms shouldn’t change, so you shouldn’t need to keep testing the relay pickup and timing during every maintenance interval. There are often many, many revisions on a project and you are the last line of defense. You won’t find any of these problems if you ask the relay what it is programmed to do and isolate each element for testing. differential protective relay (power system device function numbers) A protective relay that functions on a percentage or phase angle or other quantitative difference of two currents or of some other electrical quantities directional control (as applied to a protective relay or relay scheme) Most relay testers create some kind of automated procedure to test their relays that would look something like this using the ATM machine analogy: This test procedure is much more involved and makes it look like you are really working hard on your test, but what did you actually prove? The Over-Excitation Testing (24) Chapter is Complete. You could go down a rabbit hole of research to press the correct virtual button with your automated test, but these questions are unnecessary when performing a dynamic test. Our modern over-reliance on automation is the biggest problem. Please Explain the Principle of Weak InFeed Echo Permissive Over Reach Transfer Trip Schemes? Operation, maintenance, and field test procedures for protective relays, Applying directional overcurrent relays in ground fault protection of transmission lines, Fault event reconstruction using data pulled from intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), Cold load pickup and inrush problems in protection of distribution feeder circuits, Trip and control circuit schemes of signaling between relays and circuit breakers, Electrical Engineering Books and Technical Guides. MiCOM P546 - Disatance & Line Differential. Learn the principles with manual testing until you are bored to tears. TapCON260 - Automatic Voltage Control. He temporarily forgot how to adjust the time delay and started adjusting the pickup characteristic instead. These facilities are critical to the electric power and water delivery systems relied on by many. 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