what is scientific interrogation

Interrogation techniques range from so-called rapportbuilding—which often uses conversation to gain the trust and confidence of the suspect or source—to physical or mental torture that leaves the victim with permanent physical or mental scars. We hope that others are interested in such endeavors and encourage them to challenge our assumptions, replicate or refute our findings, and continue searching for the best language and methods that contribute to the science of interrogation. Is There a Scientific Way to Interrogate? We found that rapport and relationship building was reported to be significantly favored by the survey participants in general and confrontation/competition to be least employed, regardless of the goal (e.g., intelligence gathering, confession/prosecution) or scenario that was depicted in one of three interrogation vignettes. Much more research is clearly needed into the incredibly complex dynamic of interrogation. See CHART for between-group comparison results. interrogation. There is much work, however, to go in terms of refining the definitions and indicators (i.e., techniques) of the domains and especially their utility in the areas of training, practice, and policy. the act of interrogating; questioning. Learn of the exciting new frontiers in lie detection. Statement analysis, also called scientific content analysis (SCAN), is a technique for analyzing the words people use to try to determine if what they said is accurate.Proponents claim this technique can be used to detect concealed information, missing information, and whether the information that person has provided is true or false. Validate Their Feelings. Sgt. Their use appears to violate both domestic and international law. However, the debate between critics and proponents of the program continues, with both sides offering anecdotal evidence to support their claims. All opinions and analyses presented here are the author’s and do not reflect official policy or position of the HIG, FBI, or the U.S. Government. In fact, existing research into current practices in the US indicates that the use of an accusatorial approach – characterized by accusation, confrontation and psychological manipulation – can produce false confessions if applied against innocent subjects. The report offers an opportunity for us to reflect upon the events that led to the use of EITs by the CIA, as well as the debate over their purported effectiveness. Our research program represents only the beginning of what is possible. The Science of Interrogation. This article was originally published on The Conversation. A confession is the end game to most interrogation sessions, “enhanced” or not, and intelligence researchers and psychologists have dug into what works and what doesn't. What If Everything You Believed About Love Was Wrong? DYNAGEN™ MINI ICD The world’s smallest and thinnest ICD. Functional MRI can look inside the skull and reveal how people use different parts of the brain when they are lying. The report concludes that the CIA program was more widespread and egregious than the American public – and Congressional oversight committees – had been led to believe. A 2006 Intelligence Science Board concluded that the US Government’s interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity. This is the story of the science and techniques of interrogation and how they have been applied in real-life cases, using actual police footage as illustrations. In general, the rate at which LAPD interrogators employed the domains was remarkably similar to those from the self-reported survey. It is time that the practice of interrogation be similarly informed by scientific scrutiny. In a well conducted interrogation, the questioner remains in control at all times. for obtaining information. Scientific Interrogation: Hypnosis, Polygraphy, Narcoanalysis, Voice Stress and Pupillometrics. The Science of Interrogation: Rapport, Not Torture. Read the original article. Further, the “information gathering approach,” as it is known, preserves the ethical principles of fairness and justice and is legally permissible. The Good Cop, Bad Cop interrogation technique is the carrot and stick of police interrogation. And efforts are now being made to integrate this science and practice into international law and global policing initiatives. These techniques—particularly when used in combination—often constitute cruel, inhuman, or degradi… How have they led to the conviction of the toughest criminals or cleared the innocent? With regard to differences between law enforcement and other types of interrogators, we found few significant differences in their self-reported practices. The Understudied Trait That Makes for Happier Relationships, Adult ADHD, Perfectionism, and Procrastination, Psychology Today © 2020 Sussex Publishers, LLC, Want to Make Someone Feel Better? conventional beliefs as well as current behavioral science perspectives about the . This conclusion is confirmed by the experiences of many highly skilled interrogators. In 2009, the Obama administration created the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG), an inter-agency group comprising personnel from the FBI, CIA, and (Defense Intelligence Agency) DIA. Start studying legal aspects 3. This is the story of the science and techniques of interrogation and how they have been applied in real-life cases, using actual police footage as illustrations. An interrogation is a questioning session in which a questioner attempts to get information from someone who is believed to be involved with a situation or who may have information which could be of use. These studies assess the importance of social relationships, active listening and personal rapport in extracting information. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. The Science of Interrogation. It should encourage us to critically assess the ethical, legal, and scientific basis upon which the EIT program was based. 1 Boston Scientific provides devices tailored to individual needs. By Christopher E. Kelly When discussing the “science of interrogation,” the following disclaimer is critical: This post will be about the science of humane … Medicine and education have turned to researchers for the development of evidence-based approaches. See Synonyms at ask. Dr. Kelly has been published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Justice Quarterly and the Annual Review of Law and Social Science, and he is a member of the American Psychology-Law Society (APLS) and the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group (iIIRG). In recent years, however, the science of ethical interrogation in human intelligence gathering (HUMINT) and counterterrorism interrogation has blossomed due to the federal government’s interest in this research area for the first time in more than a half-century. He can be contacted at c.kelly@sju.edu. and "The Obama You Didn't Know" Presenting SCAN - Scientific Content Analysis: a new, innovative and effective technique. Chris Matthews, who hosts the MSNBC news program Hardball, is convinced that torture works. Currently, Dr. Kelly is leading a field experiment with the Philadelphia Police Department that examines how the context in which police interviews affect interviewees’ information disclosure and cooperation. Last Modified Date: December 12, 2020. Steve Schrimpf of the Greeley (Colo.) Police Department has spent years conducting interviews and criminal interrogations. The ethical conduct of experimental research would preclude any responsible scientist from systematically assessing the CIA’s “enhanced interrogation techniques”. Fascinating article about two psychologists who are studying interrogation techniques.. Now, two British researchers are quietly revolutionising the study and practice of interrogation. The purpose of the survey was to establish a sort of baseline of information about the methods interrogators use and perceive to be effective with uncooperative sources, detainees, or suspects. For instance, techniques that would appear operationally similar to one another would be defined differently across the works (e.g., minimization) depending on the context in which it could be employed. Finally, Americans were significantly more likely to employ the emotion provocation, confrontation/competition, and collaboration domains relative to practitioners from Canada and other European nations. Torture Not Scientifically Proven Since 1980, advancing and teaching the Scientific Detection of Deception and related Credibility Assessment Techniques; For Classes in the U.S.A. and Worldwide Nate Gordon, Director +1.215.732.3349. Unfortunately, ethical issues once again pervade any such discussion. Next, we applied the taxonomy and domain framework to a sample of suspect interrogations supplied by the Robbery-Homicide Division of the Los Angeles Police Department (RHD-LAPD) to evaluate the use of methods in a real-world setting. We argued that neither the macro nor the micro levels were very useful in describing and studying interrogation, as the former is too broad and the latter too narrow to have much value. They look at the impact of the interrogation context (how should we setup the interrogation room? In addition to its operational duties, the HIG was tasked with creating an unclassified program of research to evaluate best practices in lawful interrogation. It is time that the practice of interrogation be similarly informed by scientific scrutiny. Preventing Violence . When discussing the “science of interrogation,” the following disclaimer is critical: This post will be about the science of humane and ethical interrogation that has the goal of eliciting verifiable, actionable intelligence and/or true confessions. Having identified and defined the six domains that represented the breadth of interrogation methods (not including torture, of course), we were able to incorporate them into the survey in order to examine their self-reported rate of use by practitioners and, importantly, their perceived effectiveness relative to one another when the interrogation goals and scenarios were varied. The operational mission of the HIG was to conduct interrogations of high-value terrorism suspects. What is Interrogation? The Reid Technique makes a distinction between an interview and an interrogation. In addition, the HIG was also tasked with developing a research program to assess the effectiveness of current interrogation practices and to develop novel, science-based methods. What are the key elements in its arsenal? For the past four years, we have worked to develop new methods of intelligence interviewing and interrogation. Read the original article . ), and the role of culture and language (including the influence of interpreters). It is used to get evidence that may or may not establish guilt. Furthermore, in statistical models, the negative effect on cooperation of the confrontation/competition domain lasts for fifteen minutes, controlling for the other domains employed in the interim. The most popular approach for handling suspects has no scientific support. The release of the US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence report on the CIA’s detention and interrogation program documents the use of so-called enhanced interrogation techniques (EITs) against terrorism suspects detained by the agency. Up to 20% smaller and 24% thinner than some ICDs on the market, 2 the MINI offers all the power of a Boston Scientific ICD in a device that is the industry’s sleekest and designed for patient comfort. 12/11/2014 11:46 am ET Updated Feb 10, 2015. LSI Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation, Inc. LSI Webinar and LSI 24/7 "Distance Learning" LSI Seminar on. To examine by questioning formally or officially. This device interrogation will assess if the pacemaker lead wires going into the heart are functioning normally, that the battery level is okay, and will assess if there have been any abnormal heart rhythms detected by the pacemaker. This research is unclassified and is conducted with the oversight of Human Subjects Review Committees that protect the rights and welfare of study participants. Category scientific interrogation, memory, interrogation methods, lie detectors, lie detection, interrogation. Interrogation is defined as the verbal questioning of a suspect by law enforcement authorities for the purpose of eliciting a statement or useful information. Our group has produced more than 60 studies – from experimental research to interviews and surveys of interrogation professionals and systematic analysis of specific criminal and counterterrorist interrogation interviews. LSI stands for Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation (also Large Scale Integration and 389 more ) What is the abbreviation for Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation? The good news is that these methods are now being taught to US government personnel. Here's a glimpse at what science has to say regarding the efficacy of various interrogation methods. This article was originally published on The Conversation . Learn of the exciting new frontiers in lie detection. Gudjonsson, Gisli H. 2003. Since that time, researchers from the United States, Europe, Australia and elsewhere have been working to fulfill the Task Force’s mandate and a science of humane and ethical interrogation has begun to emerge. These two terms are often used interchangeably as if they refer to the same process. “There's an erroneous mentality that for interrogation to be effective you have to somehow weaken the resistance of the detainee, physically or psychologically,” he told New Scientist. Functional MRI can look inside the skull and reveal how people … A 2006 Intelligence Science Board concluded that the US Government’s interrogation practices were largely devoid of any scientific validity. (For a description of how this is done and graphs demonstrating the difference between “static” and “dynamic” examinations of interrogation, please see an earlier post at the CVE/HUMINT blog.) It was originally part of the Reid Technique but is used as a standalone tactic these days. Further, when we distinguished between those interrogations that ended in full or partial confessions and where suspects denied their guilt entirely, we found that both the presentation of evidence and confrontation/competition were significantly and substantially more likely to be emphasized among the suspects who denied guilt. Why are so many people drawn to conspiracy theories in times of crisis? Legal Responses to Nonconsensual Pornography, Red Flag Laws: The Future of Extreme Risk Protection Orders. Our findings clearly show that interrogation strategies that are based on building rapport and seek to understand a suspect’s motivation to cooperate are more effective than accusatory practices that look to raise anxiety levels, fabricate evidence, and minimize a suspect’s perception of their own culpability. From the earliest days of reviewing foundational work in interrogation and investigative interviewing, including the Army Field Manual 2-22.3 and manuals such as the “Reid Technique,” we realized that little standardization existed in the language used to describe and research interrogation methods. Emerging scientific research reveals non-coercive methods to be the most effective interrogation techniques. To be sure, such a science has been practiced for at least the past two decades, particularly with regard to distinguishing the factors leading to true versus false confessions in a law enforcement context. The absence of (and need for) scientific scrutiny on this issue is obvious. A new publication, Interrogation: Expanding the Frontiers of Research and Practice, shares our findings with interrogation professionals, US Government trainers, and the public. Human Information Gathering: How Can We Proceed? From my perspective, EITs are ethically indefensible. Christopher E. Kelly, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Saint Joseph's University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA). an instance of being interrogated: He seemed shaken after his interrogation. writings on the Army Field Manual, we identified six “meso” level domains that are conceptually distinct from one another and sorted more than 60 specific techniques into one of each: rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, context manipulation, confrontation/competition, collaboration, and presentation of evidence. The philosopher Helen Longino has called this process of critical scrutiny transformative interrogation: interrogation, because it’s tough, and transformative … By this we mean that the phenomenon is a fluid one, where what the interrogator does and how the suspect responds changes over the course of an interrogation, and the extant research has not begun to capture the complexities inherent to interrogation. Studies conducted by our researchers are being published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at both academic and professional meetings. Authors, Polygraph and Interrogation Experts. Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. In addition, the HIG was also tasked with developing a research program to assess the effectiveness of current interrogation practices and to develop novel, science-based methods. We’ve Got Depression All Wrong. This volume addresses interrogation and torture at a unique moment. CIA Torture Techniques Harm Interrogators As Well. A former US military interrogator in Iraq, who goes by the pseudonym Matthew Alexander, confirms O'Mara's view. Professionals Medical Specialties New Books by A Sapir: "Intelligence" vs Common Sense. My colleagues and I were initially tasked with developing a systematic survey to be deployed online to the operational community of military and criminal interrogators, investigators, and HUMINT gatherers in the United States and later, around the world. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. What is the science of interrogation? Without question, these findings on the dynamic nature of interrogation do not account for variables related to either the interrogator or the suspect, and the results only begin to account for the reciprocal effects of interpersonal interactions (i.e., whether and how the interrogator employs certain methods based on suspect behavior). An interview can also be conducted in a variety of environments (e.g., ho… However, the results of our efforts are available to both the scientific and professional communities. Furthermore, no scientific assessment of the techniques can be offered to demonstrate their effectiveness in practice. Just as important, it should prompt us to consider how we devise our future interrogation practices. The report’s first finding agreed – the “CIA’s use of its enhanced interrogation techniques was not an effective means of acquiring intelligence or gaining cooperation from detainees”. Do Narcissists Prefer to Date Other Narcissists? A complete description of the implications of this research is too detailed to be included here. Boston Scientific is dedicated to transforming lives through innovative medical solutions that improve the health of patients around the world. This effort lead to the publication of “A Taxonomy of Interrogation Methods” that differentiated between “macro” level dichotomies such as rapport-based / control-based interrogation, friendly / harsh, or maximization / minimization and the “micro” level specific techniques that are very refined in their definitions. As such, we sought to identify a “lexicon” of interrogation methods in order to capture the entire spectrum of them in a research context, something that hadn’t previously been done. An interrogation instruction manual that places considerable emphasis on detecting deception; advocates presenting suspects with crime-relevant images/sketches and interpreting their reactions to identify deceit and guilt prior to initiating an interrogation whose sole purpose is to extract a confession. Assessment of the techniques can be offered to demonstrate their effectiveness in practice medical solutions that improve the health patients. 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